Gouph is the physical and densest body, created to be able to work and evolve on the physical plane. It is the physical body as we know it.
Nefesh is the "animal soul" that vivifies Gouph, the physical body. It is the first aspect of soul which brings life force to the body. The nefesh is found in all humans, and enters the physical body at birth. Nefesh can be seen as what is known as the etheric body. It is a body composed of energy flows. Nefesh is the carrier of all passions, instincts and lusts. On this level man is only conscious of his own needs (sleep, food, reproduction etc). It is the source of one's physical and psychological nature. Nefesh relates to sense perception, behavior and action.
Ruach is the "human soul", the spirit, the intellect. It is the breath of life which drives the emotions. It corresponds with the astral body. Ruah provides for the warmth of life, the desire for a sensual existence. It also wants to be a ego, but the ego is a construct. People with low developed consciousness have a very dense ruah body and will have lower astral or lower emotional tendencies. Man must stop to identify himself with his personality, or ego, and liberate himself from the lower emotional, and also animal, passions. By purifying himself, man will discover that ruah also has moral virtues, and knowledge to distinguish between good and bad. Ruach relates to the emotions, reason, conceptual and symbolic thought, language, self-awareness, and morality.
Neshamah is the seat of the higher thoughts, corresponding to the mental body. The mental body is usually divided into two: the lower mental body which is concrete thinking and the higher mental body which is abstract thinking, sometimes also called causal body. In the causal body resides all the causes of what happens to all the lower bodies. This "inner soul", “higher soul”, or "super-soul" is what separates man from all other life-forms. Neshamah relates to the mind and intelligence.
Chayah is the pure existence of the individuality. It is not really a body but a state of being. It is the state of consciousness where one has a notion of being an essential being with a sense of "I". Here one experiences or is aware of the Divine continuously creating the World. Chayah, the "living one", relates to the bridge between the first flash of conscious insight and its super-conscious origin. It is the part of the soul that allows one to have an awareness of the divine life force itself, of God as continually crating the world. It is the transcendent unconscious level of soul, the vessel for unlimited light of consciousness, Chochmah (Wisdom) and revelation of unconscious Outer-Keter (Will).
Yechidah "the single one", is being One in the one. There is no sense of an "I". It comprises the unlimited, transcendental idea of the Absolute. The "single one" relates to the ultimate unity of the soul with God or the All. It is the the essential, transcendent root of soul, the Adam Kadmon, the vessel for revelation of unconscious Inner-Keter (Delight) and soul essence – it is the quintessence of being.
Physical body - Gouph
Etheric body - Nefesh
Astral body - Ruach
Causal body - Neshamah
Identity body - Chayah
Soul body - Yechidah